Digital competitiveness index 60 countries
do just 20 years Sergey Brin and Larry Page registered the domain google.com, and it makes only 10 Steve Jobs introduced the iPhone in San Francisco. However, in this short period of time, digital technologies have upended our world. HBR He presented the digital development index on 2015 to track the emergence of a "digital world". To see how physical interactions – communications, social and political exchange, Commerce, Media and Entertainment – They are being displaced by digitally originated. many parts of the world in which these changes are quick and elsewhere were identified where momentum has slowed. Two years later, depending on where we live, we continue to advance at different speeds to the digital planet.
Panorama digital actual
Although many things have changed since 2015, there are still obstacles in the way resisting surprisingly. Consider the five most salient features of the digital landscape today.
Digital technology is widespread and rapidly spreading.
There are more mobile connections that people on the planet, and more people have access to a mobile phone than a toilet. The transborder data flows transmitted digitally They have grown from many angles, and represent more than one third of the increase in world GDP 2014. On the other hand, the free flow of goods and services and cross-border capital have decreased following the crisis 2008. While many people can benefit from access to information and communication, the potential for evil to create the digital chaos grows every year; the Incidents of cyber attacks increase and have a greater impact.
Digital companies have a huge market power.
Based on the prices of its shares 6 July 2017 , Apple, Alphabet (Google), Microsoft, Amazon and Facebook were the five most valuable companies in the world. The US was no more valuable Chinese e-commerce giant, Alibaba Group. With products moving very fast in the network, these companies enjoy economies of scale and high market shares. In addition, have more than enough resources for innovation, with the ability to accelerate the penetration and adoption of digital products.
Digital technologies will change the future of work.
Automation, big data, there AI (artificial intelligence) could affect 50% the world economy. Anticipation and fear are equally across the threshold "Second age of the machines." More than one billion jobs and 14.6 trillion in wages are potentially automatable by technology today. That could open the door to new ways to harness the human potential, but also destroy many current jobs and increase social inequalities.
Digital markets are uneven.
Politics, regulations and levels of economic development plays an important role in shaping the digital industry and its market appeal. China, with the largest population of Internet users in the world – 721 millions – It has a parallel digital market because many of the major global players have no presence there. India, with their 462 million Internet users , has a digital economy that is undoubtedly the most potential market for global players ; However, it operates in multiple languages. The European Union has 412 million Internet users, but the market is fragmented and pending create a "digital single market". In many countries, access to certain websites and digital companies still crashes. Worldwide, digital access is far from uniform: just 50% of the world population You have access to the Internet today.
Digital commerce is still done with cash.
It is expected that global e-commerce sales exceed retail 4 trillion in 2020 , almost double today. A major obstacle is that the "cash" has not been displaced by digital alternatives although there are innumerable options. In 2013 yes, 85% The world transactions were made in cash. While the Netherlands, France, Sweden, and Switzerland are among the less effective-dependent countries of the world, even in the euro zone yes, 75% payments are cash . Most of the developing world is overwhelmingly dependent on cash; in Malaysia, Peru and Egypt, only 1% transactions are cashless . Even an experiment demonetization of India has not broken cash dependence of the country.
Each of these five points has advantages and challenges. On the other hand, how hard it is felt each varies depending on where you are in the world. For the key players global technology and politicians, It is essential to understand how progress towards a digital world is taking place in different parts of the world.
Mapping the digital time in the world
As part of the collaboration of the Fletcher School at Tufts University and Mastercard, We created the Index Digital Evolution and analyzed the state and the rate of digital evolution 60 countries. This performance is the result of an interaction between the four axes, with about 170 indicators through them (see box).
Our research began with the following questions:
- What are the digital evolution patterns worldwide? What factors explain these patterns, and how they vary from one region to another?
- Which countries are the most competitive digitally? Which actors are the main drivers of competitiveness: public or private sector?
- What does each country to accelerate its digital boost?
By measuring the current state of each country of the digital evolution and its pace of digital evolution over time, we have created the following chart, digital map of our planet (see table below). Countries in this table are divided into four zones: Featured, deadlocked, explosives and, in danger. Some countries are in the border multizone.
Featured (stand out)
Advanced countries are digitizing high velocidad.Son leaders in driving innovation, on the basis of their existing advantages of efficiently and effectively. However, maintain that status over time is a challenge. To remain at the forefront, these countries need to keep their engines running and innovation in generating new demand, pain of stagnating.
stagnant (Stall out)
Although these countries are very digitized, show signs slowdown. The five countries with the highest score in the DEI (Digital Evolution Index) 2017 – Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark and Finland – they are accommodating, It is reflecting the challenges of sustained growth. They should make a conscious effort to reinvent itself, to bet on an increase in digital technology and remove barriers to innovation. It seems that countries are deadlocked concerning growth driven by innovation, but because of maturity, require creating new economies of scale to reinvent itself and grow.
explosives (break out)
Countries "break out" score low digitization, but they are evolving rapidly. The big push these countries and their significant margin growth make them centers of attraction for investors. Historically held back by a weak institutional infrastructure and poor health, explosives countries would do well to promote better policies to help nurture and sustain innovation. They have the potential to become the leading countries of the future, with China, Malaysia, Bolivia, Kenya and Russia to head.
In danger (watch out)
These countries face huge challenges because of their low status and low boost digitization. In some cases, these countries are even going backwards in its rate of digitization. Some show remarkable creativity to serious infrastructural deficiencies, institutional constraints and low sophistication of consumer demand. The safest place for these countries to get on the digital bandwagon road would improve access to Internet by controlling the gap mobile Internet, that is, the difference between the number of mobile phones and the number of mobile phones with Internet access.
United States and Germany, two of the largest economies in the world, They are featured on the border between (stand out) and stagnating (stall out), a third, Japan, in the middle. It is essential that these economies recognize the risks of stagnation and observe smaller and greater impetus countries how political interventions might be effective to push a country into a zone of greater competitiveness. In the meantime, the digital boost the UK is stronger than their EU counterparts.
The most interesting part of the world, digitally speaking, is Asia, with China and Malaysia as examples. We can expect a great investment and business interest in this region. To this end, it is essential that political institutions are stable and supportive.
India, with a lot of political support for digitization, including the campaign "Digital India" and initiatives to give a boost to digital media payment, You should pay attention to the overall low level of evolution in the country. This can be an obstacle to any initiative. more general and systemic changes are needed to boost the digital evolution in this type of environment.
In Africa, the two largest economies, Nigeria and South Africa, They are between the explosion and the danger zone. Kenya, instead, It has digitally evolved to a level of dynamism to create a thriving ecosystem. parallel, Latin America can learn some lessons from the smaller and more agile countries, as Colombia and Bolivia.
Towards a digital world
This analysis of digital evolution involves several implications for public and private leaders as they explore ways to improve the status of digital economies worldwide.
First, supporters of digital innovation must recognize that public policies are essential to the success of the digital economy.
Countries with high performance digital sectors, as EU, usually they have a strong involvement of governments and policies in shaping digital economies. It also happens in the leading countries (Singapore, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates), as well as many explosives countries (including China, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia).
United States risks falling into stagnation zone. Bhaskar has pointed out that there is a pending political debate in the United States on the digital economy, although digital business and US innovations are preponderant worldwide. To avoid stagnation, it is necessary to adopt policies to: public-private partnerships on digital innovations; Better integration of automation, data and new technologies in the inherited economy; Investment to restructure workers and teach students in schools and thinking skills to thrive in a digital world; Improve access to capital and digital infrastructure and reduce many inequalities; Sensible regulations that conform to processors competition rules and have the dynamic view of protecting the interests of consumers without shutting down innovation; And reimagine the competitiveness of the United States in terms of its digital economy and international data flows and think beyond traditional manufacturing and trade in goods and physical services. In the sector of digital entrepreneurship, takeovers and mergers have not kept pace with the record figures moving capital. more sensitive investments are needed to create value, and not that based on the herd mentality.
Second, those working to accelerate the digital boost his country should focus on specific aspects: identify and amplify the unique drivers of digital impulse country.
Depending on the level of digital development and economic progress of a country, there are different drivers which they are primarily responsible for the digital pulse. This has different implications, so the advanced economies and developing economies should give priority: innovation for the former and improve institutional support for second. Least Developed Countries digitally must allocate limited resources wisely. Enable access to Internet on mobile phone leads to greater economic development.
The size of the country is also an important factor. Smaller countries with strong institutions can create high value as early adopters and create a mirror to the world through the implementation of appropriate ecosystem. The hubs traditional trade (as Hong Kong, Singapore and the United Kingdom) and emerging digital centers (New Zealand and Estonia) They can take the lead in creating ecosystems “intelligent” with digital capacity.
concluding, the digital economy of the world is at a threshold where the opportunity and risk are at par. Even in the short period since we published the previous edition of Index Digital Evolution, It has changed a lot on the journey to the digital world, and more surprising, there are many scattered brakes on the road. Much of this has to do with the digital momentum experienced in countries around the world, as well as the systemic nature of the forces that govern the digital evolution. Undoubtedly, countries Stand Out (Featured) y Break Out (explosives) They benefit from a combination of strong rates of digitization and government participation in the organization of digital economies.
Will the world order presented in the Digital Evolution Index this year as downfall is inevitable transformation technologies, such as artificial intelligence, cause widespread changes or regulatory and political considerations that increase inequality digital markets? The scene that sums up the state of the digital planet will evolve when necessary.
Bhaskar Chakravorti, Ajay Bhalla, Ravi Shankar Chaturvedi